Geochemical modelling of a Zn–Pb skarn: constraints from LA–ICP–MS analysis of fluid inclusions
Bertelli, Martina, Baker, Timothy, Cleverley, James S., and Ulrich, Thomas (2009) Geochemical modelling of a Zn–Pb skarn: constraints from LA–ICP–MS analysis of fluid inclusions. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 102 (1). pp. 13-26.
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The Bismark deposit (northern Chihuahua, Mexico) is one of several base metal-rich high-temperature, carbonate-replacement deposits hosted in northern Mexico. Previous fluid inclusion studies based on microthermometry and PIXE have shown that the Zn-rich, Pb-poor Bismark deposit formed from a moderate salinity magmatic fluid [Baker, T. and Lang, J.R., 2003. Reconciling fluid inclusion types, fluid processes, and fluid sources in skarns: an example from the Bismark Deposit, Mexico. Mineralium Deposita 38(4), 474–495; Baker, T., van Achterberg, E., Ryan, C.G. and Lang, J.R., 2004. Composition and evolution of ore fluids in a magmatic-hydrothermal skarn deposit. Geology 32(2), 117–120]. The exact precipitation mechanisms are unclear and may have due to cooling, salinity decrease and wall rock reaction. Furthermore, PIXE data suggested that Pb and Zn concentrations were comparable and inconsistent with the Zn-rich nature of the ore. However, Pb was commonly below the limit of detection for PIXE and the data presented by Baker et al. [Baker, T., van Achterberg, E., Ryan, C.G. and Lang, J.R., 2004. Composition and evolution of ore fluids in a magmatic-hydrothermal skarn deposit. Geology 32(2), 117–120] are regarded as the maximum concentrations of Pb in the fluid. In this study new LA ICP MS analysis was carried out on the same fluid inclusion population to compare with the PIXE data in order to constrain the uncertainty related to the Pb data and the new results are used to model possible ore deposition mechanisms. The new laser ablation data reveal overall lower concentrations of Pb in the ore fluid (average value ~ 285 ppm) than previously indicated by PIXE analysis (average value ~ 713 ppm). Chemical modelling using the new laser ablation data tested the following ore deposition processes: 1) cooling; 2) fluid–rock reaction at constant temperature; 3) cooling and simultaneous fluid–rock interaction. Modelling results show that the gangue and ore minerals observed at Bismark are best reproduced by fluid–rock interaction and simultaneous cooling. Results from the simulations strongly indicate that ore deposition was mainly driven by a pH increase due to the neutralization of the acidic ore fluid (pH = 3.9) as the result of the reaction with the limestone. Modelling results also suggest that the deposit likely formed under cooling conditions, but do not support the hypothesis of a temperature decrease as the principal ore-forming process.
|Item Type:||Article (Refereed Research - C1)|
|Keywords:||fluid inclusions; LA ICP MS analysis; geochemical modelling; Zn/Pb ratios|
|FoR Codes:||04 EARTH SCIENCES > 0402 Geochemistry > 040201 Exploration Geochemistry @ 100%|
|SEO Codes:||84 MINERAL RESOURCES (excl. Energy Resources) > 8401 Mineral Exploration > 840108 Zinc Ore Exploration @ 100%|
|Deposited On:||08 Feb 2010 12:59|
|Last Modified:||18 Oct 2013 00:55|
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