Advanced glycation endproducts co-localize with inducible nitric oxide synthase in Alzheimer’s disease
Wong, A., Luth, H. J., Deuther-Conrad, W., Dukic-Stefanovic, S., Gasic-Milenkovic, J., Arendt, T., and Münch, G. (2001) Advanced glycation endproducts co-localize with inducible nitric oxide synthase in Alzheimer’s disease. Brain Research, 920 (1-2). pp. 32-40.
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Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), protein-bound oxidation products of sugars, have been shown to be involved in the pathophysiological processes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). AGEs induce the expression of various pro-inflammatory cytokines and the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) leading to a state of oxidative stress. AGE modification and resulting crosslinking of protein deposits such as amyloid plaques may contribute to the oxidative stress occurring in AD. The aim of this study was to immunohistochemically compare the localization of AGEs and beta-amyloid (Abeta) with iNOS in the temporal cortex (Area 22) of normal and AD brains. In aged normal individuals as well as early stage AD brains (i.e. no pathological findings in isocortical areas), a few astrocytes showed co-localization of AGE and iNOS in the upper neuronal layers, compared with no astrocytes detected in young controls. In late AD brains, there was a much denser accumulation of astrocytes co-localized with AGE and iNOS in the deeper and particularly upper neuronal layers. Also, numerous neurons with diffuse AGE but not iNOS reactivity and some AGE and iNOS-positive microglia were demonstrated, compared with only a few AGE-reactive neurons and no microglia in controls. Finally, astrocytes co-localized with AGE and iNOS as well as AGE and were found surrounding mature but not diffuse amyloid plaques in the AD brain. Our results show that AGE-positive astrocytes and microglia in the AD brain express iNOS and support the evidence of an AGE-induced oxidative stress occurring in the vicinity of the characteristic lesions of AD. Hence activation of microglia and astrocytes by AGEs with subsequent oxidative stress and cytokine release may be an important progression factor in AD.
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|Keywords:||Antioxidants, Alzheimer, Microglia|
|FoR Codes:||06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0601 Biochemistry and Cell Biology > 060105 Cell Neurochemistry @ 0%|
|Deposited On:||13 Oct 2006|
|Last Modified:||14 Feb 2011 01:16|
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