Fungicidal effects of chemical disinfectants, UV light, desiccation and heat on the amphibian chytrid, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
Johnson, Megan L., Berger, Lee, Phillips, Lara, and Speare, Richard (2003) Fungicidal effects of chemical disinfectants, UV light, desiccation and heat on the amphibian chytrid, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 57 (3). pp. 255-260.
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View at Publisher Website: http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/dao057255
The efficacy of a number of disinfection treatments was tested on in vitro cultures of the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the causative agent of chytridiomycosis in amphibians. The aim was to evaluate the fungicidal effects of chemical disinfectants, sterilising ultraviolet (UV) light, heat and desiccation, using methods that were feasible for either disinfection in the field, in amphibian husbandry or in the laboratory. The chemical disinfectants tested were: sodium chloride, household bleach (active ingredient: sodium hypochlorite), potassium permanganate, formaldehyde solution, Path-XTM agricultural disinfectant (active ingredient: didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride, DDAC), quaternary ammonium compound 128 (DDAC), Dithane, Virkon, ethanol and benzalkonium chloride. In 2 series of experiments using separate isolates of B. dendrobatidis, the fungicidal effect was evaluated for various time periods and at a range of chemical concentrations. The end point measured was death of 100% of zoospores and zoosporangia. Nearly all chemical disinfectants resulted in 100% mortality for at least one of the concentrations tested. However, concentration and time of exposure was critical for most chemicals. Exposure to 70% ethanol, 1 mg Virkon ml–1 or 1 mg benzalkonium chloride ml–1 resulted in death of all zoosporangia after 20 s. The most effective products for field use were Path-XTM and the quaternary ammonium compound 128, which can be used at dilutions containing low levels (e.g. 0.012 or 0.008%, respectively) of the active compound didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride. Bleach, containing the active ingredient sodium hypochlorite, was effective at concentrations of 1% sodium hypochlorite and above. Cultures did not survive complete drying, which occurred after <3 h at room temperature. B. dendrobatidis was sensitive to heating, and within 4 h at 37°C, 30 min at 47°C and 5 min at 60°C, 100% mortality occurred. UV light (at 1000 mW m–2 with a wavelength of 254 nm) was ineffective at killing B. dendrobatidis in culture.
|Item Type:||Article (Refereed Research - C1)|
|Keywords:||chytridiomycetes; communicable diseases; mycoses control; pathogenicity; Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis; disinfectant; ultraviolet light; didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride; DDAC; desiccation; Sodium hypochlorite|
|FoR Codes:||06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0605 Microbiology > 060502 Infectious Agents @ 51%|
06 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES > 0605 Microbiology > 060505 Mycology @ 49%
|SEO Codes:||96 ENVIRONMENT > 9699 Other Environment > 969999 Environment not elsewhere classified @ 100%|
|Deposited On:||10 Feb 2010 13:40|
|Last Modified:||18 May 2013 00:50|
Last 12 Months: 115
|Citation Counts with External Providers:||Web of Science: 88|
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