Unexpected 100% survival following 60% blood loss using small-volume 7.5% NaCl with Adenocaine and mg2+ in the rat model of extreme hemorrhagic shock
Letson, Hayley L., and Dobson, Geoffrey P. (2011) Unexpected 100% survival following 60% blood loss using small-volume 7.5% NaCl with Adenocaine and mg2+ in the rat model of extreme hemorrhagic shock. Shock, 36 (6). pp. 586-594.
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Hemorrhage is responsible for up to 40% of trauma mortality, and of these deaths, 33% to 56% occur during the prehospital period. In an effort to translate the cardioprotective effects of Adenocaine (adenosine, lidocaine) and Mg2+ (ALM) from cardiac surgery to resuscitation science, we examined the early resuscitative effects of 7.5% NaCl with ALM in the rat model of 60% blood loss. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-350 g, n = 40) were anesthetized and randomly assigned to one of five groups: (a) untreated, (b) 7.5% NaCl, (c) 7.5% NaCl/6% dextran 70, (d) 7.5% NaCl/Mg2+, and (e) 7.5% NaCl/ALM. Blood withdrawal occurred over ~50 min (MAP 30-35 mmHg), and rats were left in shock for 30 min. Total shock time was ~80 min; 0.3-mL bolus was injected intravenously over 10 s, and hemodynamics monitored for 60 min (phase 1). Shed blood was reinfused and function monitored for a further 60 min (phase 2). Lead II electrocardiogram, arterial pressures, mean arterial pressure (MAP), pulse pressure (PP), heart rate (HR), and rate-pressure product were monitored. Mortality was as follows: untreated (100%), 7.5% NaCl (75%), 7.5% NaCl/6% dextran 70 (87.5%), 7.5% NaCl/Mg2+ (62.5%), and 7.5% NaCl/ALM (0%). Deaths occurred at different times depending on treatment group and paralleled differences in the total number of ventricular arrhythmias with the highest number in untreated animals (49 +/- 17) and lowest in 7.5% NaCl/ALM rats (2 +/- 1.8) (P < 0.05). At the end of phase 1, MAP of 7.5% NaCl/ALM-treated animals increased from 29 to 40 mmHg (P < 0.05). At the end of phase 2, MAP, PP, HR, and rate-pressure product in the ALM group were 75%, 193%, 96%, and 83% of their preshock values. Small-volume (~1 mL/kg) i.v. bolus of 7.5% NaCl/ALM led to 100% survival following 60% blood loss with higher MAP than any group, an 89% to 96% reduction in the total number of arrhythmias, and a stable HR.
|Item Type:||Article (Refereed Research - C1)|
|Keywords:||7.5% NaCl; trauma; shock; Adenocaine; adenosine; lidocaine; magnesium; hemorrhagic; small-volume; prehospital; military; far forward|
|FoR Codes:||11 MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES > 1102 Cardiovascular Medicine and Haematology > 110201 Cardiology (incl Cardiovascular Diseases) @ 100%|
|SEO Codes:||92 HEALTH > 9201 Clinical Health (Organs, Diseases and Abnormal Conditions) > 920103 Cardiovascular System and Diseases @ 100%|
|Deposited On:||03 Apr 2012 12:35|
|Last Modified:||23 May 2013 01:54|
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|Citation Counts with External Providers:||Web of Science: 6|
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