Indo-European and Asian origins for Chilean and Pacific chickens revealed by mtDNA
Gongora, Jaime, Rawlence, Nicolas J., Mobegi, Victor A., Jianlin, Han, Alcalde, Jose A., Matus, Jose T., Hanotte, Olivier, Moran, Chris, Austin, Jeremy J., Ulm, Sean, Anderson, Atholl J., Larson, Greger, and Cooper, Alan (2008) Indo-European and Asian origins for Chilean and Pacific chickens revealed by mtDNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105 (30). pp. 10308-10313.
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European chickens were introduced into the American continents by the Spanish after their arrival in the 15th century. However, there is ongoing debate as to the presence of pre-Columbian chickens among Amerindians in South America, particularly in relation to Chilean breeds such as the Araucana and Passion Fowl. To understand the origin of these populations, we have generated partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 41 native Chilean specimens and compared them with a previously generated database of ≈1,000 domestic chicken sequences from across the world as well as published Chilean and Polynesian ancient DNA sequences. The modern Chilean sequences cluster closely with haplotypes predominantly distributed among European, Indian subcontinental, and Southeast Asian chickens, consistent with a European genetic origin. A published, apparently pre-Columbian, Chilean specimen and six pre-European Polynesian specimens also cluster with the same European/Indian subcontinental/Southeast Asian sequences, providing no support for a Polynesian introduction of chickens to South America. In contrast, sequences from two archaeological sites on Easter Island group with an uncommon haplogroup from Indonesia, Japan, and China and may represent a genetic signature of an early Polynesian dispersal. Modeling of the potential marine carbon contribution to the Chilean archaeological specimen casts further doubt on claims for pre-Columbian chickens, and definitive proof will require further analyses of ancient DNA sequences and radiocarbon and stable isotope data from archaeological excavations within both Chile and Polynesia.
|Item Type:||Article (Refereed Research - C1)|
|Keywords:||Araucana chicken, Gallus gallus, pre-Columbian chicken, control region|
|FoR Codes:||21 HISTORY AND ARCHAEOLOGY > 2101 Archaeology > 210102 Archaeological Science @ 50%|
21 HISTORY AND ARCHAEOLOGY > 2101 Archaeology > 210103 Archaeology of Asia, Africa and the Americas @ 25%
21 HISTORY AND ARCHAEOLOGY > 2101 Archaeology > 210106 Archaeology of New Guinea and Pacific Islands (excl New Zealand) @ 25%
|SEO Codes:||97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970121 Expanding Knowledge in History and Archaeology @ 50%|
95 CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING > 9505 Understanding Past Societies > 950506 Understanding the Past of the Americas @ 50%
|Deposited On:||11 Jul 2011 14:55|
|Last Modified:||30 Jul 2013 01:01|
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