A zoospore inhibition technique to evaluate the activity of antifungal compounds against Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and unsuccessful treatment of experimentally infected green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) by fluconazole and benzalkonium chloride
Berger, Lee, Speare, Rich, Martanelli, Gerry, and Skerratt, Lee F. (2009) A zoospore inhibition technique to evaluate the activity of antifungal compounds against Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and unsuccessful treatment of experimentally infected green tree frogs (Litoria caerulea) by fluconazole and benzalkonium chloride. Research in Veterinary Science, 87 (1). pp. 106-110.
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Effective and safe treatments of chytridiomycosis in amphibians, caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, are needed to help prevent mortality in captive programs for threatened species, to reduce the risk of spread, and to better manage the disease in threatened populations. We describe a simple method to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antifungal agents that involves adding zoospores to various drug concentrations in 96 well plates and microscopic observation after four days. We report results from testing 10 commercially available antifungal compounds: benzalkonium chloride (<0.78 μg/ml), povidone iodine (312.5 μg/ml), amphotericin B (3.125 μg/ml), fluconazole (<1.56 μg/ml), itraconazole (<1.56 μg/ml), enilconazole (<1.56 μg/ml), mercurochrome (6.25 μg/ml), sodium chloride (12.5 mg/ml), methylene blue (<1.56 μg/ml) and Virkon (3.125 μg/ml). For treatment trials of juvenile Litoria caerulea, baths of benzalkonium chloride at 1 mg/L and fluconazole at 25 mg/L were used on 18 experimentally infected frogs per treatment. Although these treatments resulted in longer survival times (mean 43.7 ± 11.3 days) than in the untreated controls (37.9 ± 9.3 days), the mortality rate was still 100%. Higher doses of fluconazole are suggested for further animal trials.
|Item Type:||Article (Refereed Research - C1)|
|Keywords:||chytridiomycosis, amphibian, treatment, antifungal testing, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Litoria caerulea|
|FoR Codes:||07 AGRICULTURAL AND VETERINARY SCIENCES > 0707 Veterinary Sciences > 070707 Veterinary Microbiology (excl Virology) @ 50%|
07 AGRICULTURAL AND VETERINARY SCIENCES > 0707 Veterinary Sciences > 070706 Veterinary Medicine @ 50%
|SEO Codes:||97 EXPANDING KNOWLEDGE > 970107 Expanding Knowledge in the Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences @ 30%|
96 ENVIRONMENT > 9604 Control of Pests, Diseases and Exotic Species > 960405 Control of Pests, Diseases and Exotic Species at Regional or Larger Scales @ 20%
96 ENVIRONMENT > 9608 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity > 960805 Flora, Fauna and Biodiversity at Regional or Larger Scales @ 50%
|Deposited On:||08 May 2010 11:50|
|Last Modified:||19 May 2013 01:12|
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|Citation Counts with External Providers:||Web of Science: 11|
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